A miniaturized optoelectronic sensor is demonstrated that measures total protein concentration in serum and urine with sensitivity and accuracy comparable to gold-standard methods. The sensor is comprised of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), photodetector and other custom optical components and electronics that can be hybrid packaged into a portable, handheld form factor. In conjunction, a custom fluorescence assay has been developed based on the protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE) phenomenon, enabling real-time sensor response to changes in protein concentration. Methods are described for the following:Standard curves: Used to determine the sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity of the VCSEL biosensor/PIFE assay system in buffer as well as in human blood and urine samples.Comparison of VCSEL biosensor performance with a benchtop fluorimetric microplate reader.Accuracy of the VCSEL biosensor/PIFE assay system: Evaluated by comparing sensor measurements with gold-standard clinical laboratory measurements of total protein in serum and urine samples from patients with diabetes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mex.2021.101414
View details for PubMedID 34430309