PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): To evaluate Biology-guided Radiotherapy (BgRT) plans generated using PET data acquired on the first installation of the Reflexion X1 system. BgRT treatment planning optimizes for fluence indirectly by calculating firing filters that best translate the X1 acquired PET image to the fluences that deliver the prescribed radiation dose. During a treatment session, the firing filters are applied to limited time sampled (LTS) PET images to calculate delivery fluences.MATERIALS/METHODS: An FDG fillable phantom insert that consists of a 22 mm diameter spherical target (PTV1, ball) and a C-shape object (PTV2 with 26mm axial length, 255° partial annulus with major and minor radii of 27 mm and 12 mm) was imaged using a CT Simulator to create planning contours. The water filled insert surrounding these objects was filled with FDG to simulate a warm background. Both targets were filled with FDG, simulating a target to background ratio of 8:1. Two different BgRT treatment plans were generated for PTV1 simulating homogenous uptake, and PTV2 with an inhomogeneous FDG uptake due to necrosis (a cylinder encompassing the C shape PET avid object). A structure that is 12.5 mm away from these targets was used to simulate OAR. Two PET/CT imaging acquisitions were performed on the RefleXion X1 masking the signal outside of each target plus 10 mm margin. Two different BgRT plans were generated prescribing 50 Gy delivered in 5 fractions to each target, separately. The quality of each treatment plan was evaluated based on PTV coverage, Conformity Index at 50% and 80% isodose lines (CI50, CI80) and OAR sparing. Both BgRT plans then delivered to the independent quality assurance tool for patient specific QA verification where the 3%/3 mm gamma criteria was used.RESULTS: BgRT plans for both homogenous and heterogenous FDG uptake targets were created successfully. Prescription dose coverages were 94.2% and 96.3% for PTV1 and PTV2, respectively. The maximum OAR doses were 30.9 and 33.0 Gy and average OAR doses were 14.4 and 20.1 Gy for PTV1 and PTV2 plans, respectively. CI50 were 7.7 and 6.8 where CI80 were 2.5 and 2.6 for PTV1 and PTV2 plans. The patient specific QA passed with 100 % for both plans.CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the BgRT plan creation and QA delivery using a clinical installation of the Reflexion X1 system, opening the potential towards BgRT dose delivery using the real time FDG uptake measurements to biologically guide active radiation beam delivery. The X1 system was able to optimize and deliver the BgRT plans for both homogenous and heterogenous FDG uptake scenarios. BgRT is a new paradigm of dose optimization, where a new set of optimization and evaluation approaches will be needed.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.07.1412
View details for PubMedID 34701638