Background Several US risk stratification schemas for assessing adnexal lesions exist. These multiple-subcategory systems may be more multifaceted than necessary for isolated adnexal lesions in average-risk women. Purpose To explore whether a US-based classification scheme of classic versus nonclassic appearance can be used to help appropriately triage women at average risk of ovarian cancer without compromising diagnostic performance. Materials and Methods This retrospective multicenter study included isolated ovarian lesions identified at pelvic US performed between January 2011 and June 2014, reviewed between September 2019 and September 2020. Lesions were considered isolated in the absence of ascites or peritoneal implants. Lesions were classified as classic or nonclassic based on sonographic appearance. Classic lesions included simple cysts, hemorrhagic cysts, endometriomas, and dermoids. Otherwise, lesions were considered nonclassic. Outcomes based on histopathologic results or clinical or imaging follow-up were recorded. Diagnostic performance and frequency of malignancy were calculated. Frequency of malignancy between age groups was compared using the ?2 test, and Poisson regression was used to explore relationships between imaging features and malignancy. Results A total of 970 isolated lesions in 878 women (mean age, 42 years ± 14 [SD]) were included. The malignancy rate for classic lesions was less than 1%. Of 970 lesions, 53 (6%) were malignant. The malignancy rate for nonclassic lesions was 32% (33 of 103) when blood flow was present and 8% (16 of 194) without blood flow (P < .001). For women older than 60 years, the malignancy rate was 50% (10 of 20 lesions) when blood flow was present and 13% (five of 38) without blood flow (P = .004). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the classic-versus-nonclassic schema was 93% (49 of 53 lesions), 73% (669 of 917 lesions), 17% (49 of 297 lesions), and 99% (669 of 673 lesions), respectively, for detection of malignancy. Conclusion Using a US classification schema of classic- or nonclassic-appearing adnexal lesions resulted in high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of malignancy in ovarian cancer. The highest risk of cancer was in isolated nonclassic lesions with blood flow in women older than 60 years. © RSNA, 2022 See also the editorial by Baumgarten in this issue.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.212338
View details for PubMedID 35315722