Several studies indicate adverse effects of selected heat exposures on semen quality, but few studies have directly evaluated fertility as an endpoint.We evaluated prospectively the association between male heat exposures and fecundability, the per-cycle probability of conception.We analyzed data from 3,041 couples residing in the United States or Canada who enrolled in a prospective preconception cohort study (2013-2021). At enrollment, males reported on several heat-related exposures, such as use of saunas, hot baths, seat heaters, and tight-fitting underwear. Pregnancy status was updated on female follow-up questionnaires every 8 weeks until conception or a censoring event (initiation of fertility treatment, cessation of pregnancy attempts, withdrawal, loss to follow-up, or 12 cycles), whichever came first. We used proportional probabilities models to estimate fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between heat exposures and fecundability, mutually adjusting for heat exposures and other potential confounders.We observed small inverse associations for hot bath/tub use (=3 vs. 0 times/month: FR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.70-1.07) and fever in the 3 months before baseline (FR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.79-1.12; 1 cycle of follow-up: FR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.64-1.11). Little association was found for sauna use, hours of laptop use on one's lap, seat heater use, time spent sitting, and use of tight-fitting underwear. Based on a cumulative heat metric, FRs for 1, 2, 3, and =4 vs. 0 heat exposures were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87-1.12), 1.03 (95% CI: 0.89-1.19), 0.94 (95% CI: 0.74-1.19), and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.50-1.17), respectively. Associations were stronger among men aged =30 years (=4 vs. 0 heat exposures: FR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.34-1.04).Male use of hot tubs/baths and fever showed weak inverse associations with fecundability. Cumulative exposure to multiple heat sources was associated with a moderate reduction in fecundability, particularly among males aged =30 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1111/andr.13242
View details for PubMedID 35924639