Much has been learned about the diagnosis and treatment of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES), and certain questions require further investigation. Delay in diagnosis of ZES is still a significant problem, and clinical suspicion should be elevated. The single best imaging modality for localization and staging of ZES is somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Goals of surgical treatment for ZES differ between sporadic and MEN-1-related cases. All sporadic cases of ZES should be surgically explored (including duodenotomy) even with negative imaging results, because of the high likelihood of finding and removing a tumor for potential cure. Surgery for MEN-1-related cases should be focused on prevention of metastatic disease, with surgery being recommended when pancreatic tumors are greater than 2 cm. The role of Whipple procedure, especially for MEN-1 cases, should be explored further. Laparoscopic and endoscopic treatments are more experimental, but may have a role.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.suc.2009.06.018
View details for Web of Science ID 000271782300005
View details for PubMedID 19836486