While food allergy oral immunotherapy (OIT) can provide safe and effective desensitization (DS), the immune mechanisms underlying development of sustained unresponsiveness (SU) following a period of avoidance are largely unknown. Here, we compare high dimensional phenotypes of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets of participants in a previously reported, phase 2 randomized, controlled, peanut OIT trial who achieved SU vs. DS (no vs. with allergic reactions upon food challenge after a withdrawal period; n=21 vs. 30 respectively among total 120 intent-to-treat participants). Lower frequencies of naive CD8+ T cells and terminally differentiated CD57+CD8+ T cell subsets at baseline (pre-OIT) are associated with SU. Frequency of naive CD8+ T cells shows a significant positive correlation with peanut-specific and Ara h 2-specific IgE levels at baseline. Higher frequencies of IL-4+ and IFNgamma+ CD4+ T cells post-OIT are negatively correlated with SU. Our findings provide evidence that an immune signature consisting of certain CD8+ T cell subset frequencies is potentially predictive of SU following OIT.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-022-34222-8
View details for PubMedID 36333296