To determine whether digital subtraction angiography (DSA) combined with real-time fluoroscopic imaging improves the detection rate of intravascular injection during cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections (CTFESIs).Retrospective analysis.Outpatient surgery center.A total of 134 subjects with cervical radicular pain who had CTFESIs performed by a single physician between June 9, 2004, and April 23, 2007.One hundred seventy-seven CTFESIs performed at one or more cervical spinal levels either unilaterally or bilaterally. Procedures performed before September 12, 2005, used fluoroscopic guidance with contrast injection and live imaging to identify intravascular injection. All procedures performed after September 12, 2005, also included DSA.Intravascular injection detected during CTFESIs with and without DSA.Intravascular injection was detected in 17.9% of CTFESIs performed without DSA. By adding DSA technology to the real-time fluoroscopic imaging procedure, the detection of vascular injection nearly doubled to 32.8%, which was statistically significant (P = .0471).The use of DSA improves the detection rate of intravascular injection during CTFESIs.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.03.017
View details for Web of Science ID 000208411700006
View details for PubMedID 19627957