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OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and perioperative outcomes following neoadjuvant immunotherapy for resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).METHODS: Patients with stage I to III NSCLC treated with immunotherapy with or without chemotherapy or chemotherapy alone prior to lobectomy were identified in the National Cancer Database (2010-2018). The percentage of operations performed minimally invasively, conversion rates, and perioperative outcomes were evaluated using propensity-score matching. Propensity-score matching was also used to compare perioperative outcomes between patients who underwent an open lobectomy and those who underwent an MIS lobectomy after neoadjuvant immunotherapy.RESULTS: Of the 4229 patients identified, 218 (5%) received neoadjuvant immunotherapy and 4011 (95%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone. There was no difference in the rate of MIS lobectomy among patients who received immunotherapy compared with those who received chemotherapy alone in propensity score-matched analysis (60.8% vs 51.6%; P=.11). There also were no significant differences in the rate of conversion from MIS to open lobectomy (14% vs 15%, P=.83; odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-2.24) or in nodal downstaging, margin positivity, 30-day readmission, and 30- and 90-day mortality between the 2 groups. In a subgroup analysis of only patients treated with neoadjuvant immunotherapy, there were no differences in pathologic or perioperative outcomes between patients who underwent open lobectomy and those who underwent MIS lobectomy.CONCLUSIONS: In this national analysis, neoadjuvant immunotherapy for resectable NSCLC was not associated with an increased likelihood of the need for thoracotomy, conversion from MIS to open lobectomy, or inferior perioperative outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2022.12.006
View details for PubMedID 36653251