Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting demonstrates technology capable of producing structures comparable to native tissues in the human body. The Freeform Reversible Embedding of Suspended Hydrogels (FRESH) technique involves hydrogel-based bio-inks printed within a thermo-reversible support bath to provide mechanical strength to the printed construct. Smaller and more uniform microsphere sizes of FRESH were reported to aid in enhancing printing resolution and construct accuracy. Therefore, we sought to optimize the FRESH generation protocol, particularly by varying stir speed and stir duration, in hopes to further improve microsphere size and uniformity. We observed optimal conditions at a stir speed of 600 rpm and stir duration for 20 hours that generated the smallest microspheres with the best uniformity. Comparison of using the optimized FRESH to the commercial FRESH LifeSupport to bioprint single filament and geometrical constructs revealed reduced single filament diameters and higher angular precision in the optimized FRESH bio-printed constructs compared to those printed in the commercial FRESH. Overall, our refinement of the FRESH manufacturing protocol represents an important step toward enhancing 3D bioprinting resolution and construct fidelity. Improving such technologies allows for the fabrication of highly accurate constructs with anatomical properties similar to native counterparts. Such work has significant implications in the field of tissue engineering for producing accurate human organ model systems.
View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.TEC.2022.0214
View details for PubMedID 36719778