Hepatocellular Adenomas: Molecular Basis and Multimodality Imaging Update. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc Tse, J. R., Felker, E. R., Naini, B. V., Shen, L., Shen, J., Lu, D. S., Kamaya, A., Raman, S. S. 2023; 43 (3): e220134


Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) are a family of liver tumors that are associated with variable prognoses. Since the initial description of these tumors, the classification of HCAs has expanded and now includes eight distinct genotypic subtypes based on molecular analysis findings. These genotypic subtypes have unique derangements in their cellular biologic makeup that determine their clinical course and may allow noninvasive identification of certain subtypes. Multiphasic MRI performed with hepatobiliary contrast agents remains the best method to noninvasively detect, characterize, and monitor HCAs. HCAs are generally hypointense during the hepatobiliary phase; the beta-catenin-mutated exon 3 subtype and up to a third of inflammatory HCAs are the exception to this characterization. It is important to understand the appearances of HCAs beyond their depictions at MRI, as these tumors are typically identified with other imaging modalities first. The two most feared related complications are bleeding and malignant transformation to hepatocellular carcinoma, although the risk of these complications depends on tumor size, subtype, and clinical factors. Elective surgical resection is recommended for HCAs that are persistently larger than 5 cm, adenomas of any size in men, and all beta-catenin-mutated exon 3 HCAs. Thermal ablation and transarterial embolization are potential alternatives to surgical resection. In the acute setting of a ruptured HCA, patients typically undergo transarterial embolization with or without delayed surgical resection. This update on HCAs includes a review of radiologic-pathologic correlations by subtype and imaging modality, related complications, and management recommendations. © RSNA, 2023 Online supplemental material is available for this article. Quiz questions for this article are available through the Online Learning Center.

View details for DOI 10.1148/rg.220134

View details for PubMedID 36821508