Although outcomes after intestinal transplantation have steadily improved owing to advances in immunosuppressive therapy, operative techniques, and postoperative medical management, rejection of the intestinal allograft continues to be a major clinical problem and constitutes the primary reason for graft loss. Although the adaptive immune system has been the major focus of investigation regarding regulation of rejection of the intestinal allograft, the role of the innate immune system has recently become of increased interest. We hypothesized that microbial products of the microflora associated with the intestinal allograft may engage the Toll-like receptor pathway of the innate immune system to potentiate alloimmune responses and rejection of the allograft. To investigate this, we established a murine model for orthotopic intestinal transplantation and allograft rejection. Using this model, we show that the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 is increased 50-fold and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 is increased 200-fold during rejection of the allograft. We then performed survival studies that showed increased survival of mice, which had the Toll-like receptor knocked out. These preliminary studies suggest an important role for in innate immune system in acute rejection of the small intestinal allografts, and as such represents an emerging and promising area of investigation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.05.157
View details for Web of Science ID 000281942200052
View details for PubMedID 20832568