Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognizing endogenous and exogenous danger signals could play a role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to describe the presence, localization, and extent of expression of TLR and their adapters.TLR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 9 receptors, and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88, Toll/interleukin receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapter protein MyD88 adapter-like, and TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon/TIR-containing adapter molecule-1 adapters were analyzed in RA (n = 10) and osteoarthritis (OA; n = 5) samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Their colocalization with cellular markers CD68, CD15, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, dendritic cell lysosomal-associated membrane protein (DC-LAMP), CD123, and 5B5 was analyzed in double immunofluorescence staining.In RA, ß-actin standardized messenger RNA of TLR 2, 3, and 9 (p < 0.001) were particularly high. TLR 5 and 6 were also elevated (p < 0.05), but TLR 1 and 4 and adapters did not differ between RA and OA. In double-staining, TLR and adapters were strongly labeled in myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC), moderately in CD68+ type A lining cells/macrophages, and weakly to moderately in 5B5+ type B lining cells/fibroblasts. CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ T cells and CD20+ B cells in perivenular areas and in lymphoid follicles were moderately TLR- and weakly adapter-positive. In OA, TLR and adapters were weakly immunolabeled in vascular, lining, and inflammatory cells.RA synovium showed abundant expression of TLR. RA synovitis tissue seems to be responsive to TLR ligands. DC, type A cells/macrophages, and type B cells/fibroblasts are, in that order from highest to lowest, equipped with TLR, suggesting a hierarchical responsiveness. In RA, danger-associated molecular patterns to TLR interactions may particularly drive DC to autoinflammatory and autoimmune cascades/synovitis.
View details for DOI 10.3899/jrheum.100732
View details for Web of Science ID 000290780700006
View details for PubMedID 21324962