Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction often requires a two-stage approach. This study analyzes the biomechanical properties after cyclic loading of a one-stage ACL revision technique using a calcium phosphate bone cement.Arthroscopic reconstruction of the ACL was performed in 5 matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric knees separated into two groups. The control group underwent a standard reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft with bioabsorbable interference screw fixation. The experimental group simulated a failed reconstruction by drilling a 12 mm hole and underwent a revision after filling it with a bioabsorbable calcium phosphate bone cement. The specimens were dissected, scanned for bone mineral density, and cyclically loaded on a mechanical testing system (preload of 250 cycles of 5-75 N at 0.5 Hz followed by 10,000 cycles of 20-150 N at 1 Hz). Intact specifmens underwent a load-to-failure protocol of 50mm/min. Ultimate load, stiffness, and modes of failure were recorded. Data was analyzed using paired t-tests.All specimens completed the mechanical testing protocol. The control group had a mean maximum load of 471.33 N (SD 220.73 N) and the experimental group had 453.54 N (SD 152.36; p=0.84). There were no statistically significant differences in maximum load or stiffness. No correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and maximum load was found.Using calcium phosphate filler in a single-stage ACL revision is biomechanically viable. Further testing of long-term incorporation of the ACL graft in an animal model, along with human clinical trials, should be performed before there is clinical acceptance of this technique.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.knee.2011.06.013
View details for Web of Science ID 000305852300046
View details for PubMedID 21775147