Magnetic resonance imaging of frozen tissues: Temperature-dependent MR signal characteristics and relevance for MR monitoring of cryosurgery MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Daniel, B. L., Butts, K., Block, W. F. 1999; 41 (3): 627-630


Previously, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of frozen tissues created during cryosurgery has been described as a signal void. In this work, very short echo times (1.2 msec) allowed MR signals from frozen tissues to be measured at temperatures down to -35 degrees C. Ex vivo bovine liver, muscle, adipose tissue, and water were imaged at steady-state temperatures from -78 degrees to +6 degrees C. Signal intensity, T2*, and T1 were measured using gradient-echo imaging. Signal intensity and T2* decrease monotonically with temperature. In the future, these MR parameters may be useful for mapping temperatures during cryosurgery.

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