P-glycoprotein is an efflux pump for many drugs including doxorubicin and paclitaxel. This study evaluated the coadministration of these drugs with the P-glycoprotein inhibitor valspodar (PSC 833) with the aim of determining: (a) maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) of doxorubicin followed by paclitaxel (DP); (b) the MTD of DP combined with PSC 833 (DPV), without and with filgrastim (G-CSF); and (c) the pharmacokinetic interactions of PSC 833 with doxorubicin and paclitaxel.For the first cycle, patients received doxorubicin as a 15-min infusion followed by paclitaxel as a 1-h infusion. For the second cycle, patients received reduced doses of DP with PSC 833 at 5 mg/kg p.o., four times a day for 12 doses.Thirty-three patients with various refractory malignancies were enrolled and assessable. The MTD of DP without PSC 833 was 35 mg/m(2) doxorubicin and 150 mg/m(2) paclitaxel. The MTD of DPV without G-CSF was 12.5 mg/m(2) doxorubicin and 70 mg/m(2) paclitaxel. The dose-limiting toxicity for both DP and DPV was neutropenia without thrombocytopenia. With G-CSF, the MTD for DPV was 20 mg/m(2) doxorubicin and 90 mg/m(2) paclitaxel. No grade 4 nonhematological toxicities were observed. Five partial and two minor tumor remissions were observed. Paired pharmacokinetics with and without PSC 833 revealed substantial drug interactions with both doxorubicin and paclitaxel.PSC 833 can be administered safely with doxorubicin and paclitaxel. The pharmacokinetic profiles of these drugs are significantly affected by PSC 833, requiring approximately 60% dose reductions for equivalent degrees of myelosuppression.
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