Spinal Cord Stimulation Versus Re-operation in Patients With Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: An International Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial (EVIDENCE Study) NEUROMODULATION North, R. B., Kumar, K., Wallace, M. S., Henderson, J. M., Shipley, J., Hernandez, J., Mekel-Bobrov, N., Jaax, K. N. 2011; 14 (4): 330-335


This paper presents the protocol of the EVIDENCE study, a multicenter multinational randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) with rechargeable pulse generator versus re-operation through 36-month follow-up in patients with failed back surgery syndrome.Study subjects have neuropathic radicular leg pain exceeding or equaling any low back pain and meet specified entry criteria. One-to-one randomization is stratified by site and by one or more prior lumbosacral operations. The sample size of 132 subjects may be adjusted to between 100 and 200 subjects using a standard adaptive design statistical method with pre-defined rules. Crossover treatment is possible. Co-primary endpoints are proportion of subjects reporting = 50% leg pain relief without crossover at 6 and at 24 months after SCS screening trial or re-operation. Insufficient pain relief constitutes failure of randomized treatment, as does crossover. Secondary endpoints include cost-effectiveness; relief of leg, back, and overall pain; change in disability and quality of life; and rate of crossover. We are collecting data on subject global impression of change, patient satisfaction with treatment, employment status, pain/paresthesia overlap, SCS programming, and adverse events.As the first multicenter randomized controlled trial of SCS versus re-operation and the first to use only rechargeable SCS pulse generators, the EVIDENCE study will provide up-to-date evidence on the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome.

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1525-1403.2011.00371.x

View details for Web of Science ID 000293562500019

View details for PubMedID 21992427