Lung cancer continues to be the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and other developed countries. The most common subtype is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Within NSCLC, we are discovering remarkable molecular heterogeneity. Most current actionable mutations have been identified in patients with adenocarcinoma histology, but now new mutations are being discovered in squamous cell histology patients as well. This molecular heterogeneity provides an opportunity for clinical trials to exploit various candidate oncogene-addicted pathways in NSCLC. This article focuses on 2 shifting paradigms in NSCLC management: the recent advances in targeted therapy and maintenance treatment.
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