To gain a detailed understanding of those factors that govern the processing of dietary-derived lipoprotein remnants by macrophages we examined the uptake and degradation of rat triacylglycerol-rich chylomicron remnants and rat cholesterol-rich beta-very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) by J774 cells and primary cultures of mouse peritoneal macrophages. The level of cell associated 125I-labeled beta-VLDL and 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants reached a similar equilibrium level within 2 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. However, the degradation of 125I-labeled beta-VLDL was two to three times greater than the degradation of 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants at each time point examined, with rates of degradation of 161.0 +/- 36.0 and 60.1 +/- 6.6 ng degraded/h per mg cell protein, respectively. At similar extracellular concentrations of protein or cholesterol, the relative rate of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis from [3H]cholesteryl oleate/cholesteryl [14C]oleate-labeled chylomicron remnants was one-third to one-half that of similarly labeled beta-VLDL. The reduction in the relative rate of chylomicron remnant degradation by macrophages occurred in the absence of chylomicron remnant-induced alterations in low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor recycling or in retroendocytosis of either 125I-labeled lipoprotein. The rate of internalization of 125I-labeled beta-VLDL by J774 cells was greater than that of 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants, with initial rates of internalization of 0.21 ng/min per mg cell protein for 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants and 0.39 ng/min per mg cell protein for 125I-labeled beta-VLDL. The degradation of 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants and 125I-labeled beta-VLDL was dependent on lysosomal enzyme activity: preincubation of macrophages with the lysosomotropic agent monensin reduced the degradation of both lipoproteins by greater than 90%. However, the pH-dependent rate of degradation of 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants by lysosomal enzymes isolated from J774 cells was 50% that of 125I-labeled beta-VLDL. The difference in degradation rates was dependent on the ratio of lipoprotein to lysosomal protein used and was greatest at ratios greater than 50. The degradation of 125I-labeled beta-VLDL by isolated lysosomes was reduced 30-40% by preincubation of beta-VLDL with 25-50 micrograms oleic acid/ml, suggesting that released free fatty acids could cause the slower degradation of chylomicron remnants. Thus, differences in the rate of uptake and degradation of remnant lipoproteins of different compositions by macrophages are determined by at least two factors: 1) differences in the rates of lipoprotein internalization and 2) differences in the rate of lysosomal degradation.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990DW71300007
View details for PubMedID 2280181