Fibroblast expression of C-C chemokines in response to orthopaedic biomaterial particle challenge in vitro JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Yaszay, B., Trindade, M. C., Lind, M., Goodman, S. B., Smith, R. L. 2001; 19 (5): 970-976


C-C chemokines are soluble mediators that occur in a periprosthetic granuloma and influence recruitment, localization and activation of inflammatory cells. This study tested effects of titanium and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles on expression of selected C-C chemokines in cultured human fibroblasts. The C-C chemokines analyzed included monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. 2 (MCP-1. 2), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) served as a known stimulator of chemokine release while interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression served as a marker for fibroblast activation. Protein and mRNA signal levels were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. The results demonstrated that exposure of fibroblasts to titanium and PMMA particles resulted in increased release of MCP-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After 24 h, titanium particles maximally upregulated MCP-1 release 7-fold while PMMA particles increased MCP-1 levels 2-fold, when compared to unchallenged fibroblasts. MCP-2, MIP-1 alpha and RANTES levels remained unchanged following exposure of fibroblasts to titanium or PMMA particles at any concentration or time point tested. However, IL-1 beta stimulated release of MCP-1, MCP-2, and RANTES, but not MIP-1 alpha from the fibroblasts. IL-1 beta, not particles, exhibited the most prominent effect on MCP-1 mRNA levels. Increased release of MCP-1 from fibroblasts exposed to titanium and PMMA particles coincided with increased release of IL-6. This study suggests that release of chemoattractant factors from fibroblasts localized in periprosthetic membranes enhances the chronic inflammatory process leading to bone resorption and implant loosening.

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