Retained products of conception (RPOC) are a common and treatable complication after delivery or termination of pregnancy. The pathologic diagnosis of RPOC is made based on the presence of chorionic villi, which indicates persistent placental or trophoblastic tissue. In the setting of postpartum hemorrhage, however, distinguishing RPOC from bleeding related to normal postpartum lochia or uterine atony can be clinically challenging. Ultrasonographic (US) evaluation can be particularly helpful in these patients, and a thickened endometrial echo complex (EEC) or a discrete mass in the uterine cavity is a helpful gray-scale US finding that suggests RPOC. However, gray-scale US findings alone are inadequate for accurate diagnosis. Detection of vascularity in a thickened EEC or an endometrial mass at color or power Doppler US increases the positive predictive value for the diagnosis of RPOC. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful when US findings are equivocal and typically demonstrates an enhancing intracavitary mass in patients with RPOC. Diagnostic pitfalls are rare but may include highly vascular RPOC, which can be mistaken for a uterine arteriovenous malformation; true arteriovenous malformations of the uterus; invasive moles; blood clot; and subinvolution of the placental implantation site. © RSNA, 2013.
View details for DOI 10.1148/rg.333125177
View details for PubMedID 23674774