BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to review the literature concerning the distribution of topical therapeutics to the sinuses versus nasal cavity regarding: surgical state, delivery device, head position, and nasal anatomy and to provide evidence-based recommendations. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases to perform a Medical Subject Heading search of the literature from 1946 until the last week of May 2012. Articles were independently reviewed and graded for level of evidence. All authors came to consensus on recommendations through an iterative process. RESULTS: Recommendations were made for: improved sinus delivery with high-volume devices and after standard sinus surgery. Recommendations were made against low-volume delivery devices, such as drops, sprays, or simple nebulizers as they do not reliably reach the sinuses. If large-volume devices are not tolerated, low-volume devices are recommended using the lying head back or lateral head low positions to improve nasal cavity distribution to the middle meatus or olfactory cleft. CONCLUSION: Surgery, volume of device, head position, and nasal anatomy were shown to impact distribution to the sinuses. Recommendations are made based upon this evidence as to how to best maximize therapeutic distribution to the sinuses.
View details for DOI 10.1002/alr.21172
View details for Web of Science ID 000325111500002
View details for PubMedID 23729216