Titanium alloy particles were isolated from membranes obtained at revision arthroplasty. Addition of these retrieved particles to human monocytes/macrophages in cell culture resulted in morphologic change and metabolic activation. Cells exposed to these particles actively phagocytized the metallic debris, resulting in an increase in cytoplasm and a polarization of ingested metal. The metabolic response of the macrophages included increased release of prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and increased hexosaminidase activity. Increased release of interleukin-1 beta was maximal 6 to 12 hours after particle exposure. These data show that retrieved titanium alloy particles activate macrophages in vitro in an analogous fashion to that observed around failed arthroplasties.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996TP57400032
View details for PubMedID 8542704