Three-dimensional regional dynamics of the normal mitral anulus during left ventricular ejection JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Glasson, J. R., Komeda, M., Daughters, G. T., Niczyporuk, M. A., Bolger, A. F., Ingels, N. B., Miller, D. C. 1996; 111 (3): 574-584


The mitral anulus is a dynamic structure that undergoes alterations in size and shape throughout the cardiac cycle, contracting during systole. Numerous reports have shown this systolic orifice reduction to be due chiefly to posterior annular contraction, whereas the anterior perimeter was unchanged. Segmental motion of the mitral anulus from true in vivo three-dimensional data, however, has not been described. We used radiopaque markers and simultaneous biplane videofluoroscopy to measure the lengths of mitral anular segments in seven closed-chest, sedated dogs. Eight markers were placed equidistant from each other around the mitral anulus, As viewed from the left atrium, segment 1 began at the posteromedial commissure, and the remaining segments were numbered sequentially clockwise around the anulus (that is, the posterior mitral anulus encompassed segments 1 to 4 and the anterior anulus encompassed segments 5 to 8). Marker image coordinates obtained from two orthogonal views 7 to 12 days after implantation were merged to construct three-dimensional marker coordinates at end-diastole and end-systole. From end-diastole to end-systole, mean annular area decreased by 11% +/- 8% (5.5 +/- 0.9 cm2 to 4.9 +/- 0.8 cm2, p = 0.005) and perimeter by 5% +/- 4% (8.8 +/- 0.7 cm to 8.3 +/- 0.7 cm, p < 0.01). Mitral annular segmental percent systolic shortening (negative values indicate lengthening) were as follows (mean +/- standard deviation): segment 1, 7% +/- 9%; segment 2, 8% +/- 10%; segment 3, 16% +/- 6%; segment 4, 10% +/- 7%; segment 5, -4% +/- 5%, segment 6, -7% +/-7%; segment 7, 3% +/- 2%; and segment 8, 6% +/- 5%. With the exception of segment 1, all posterior (2 to 4) and two anterior (7 and 8) mitral annular segments contracted significantly (p < or = vs zero, paired t test). Two anterior annular segments (5 and 6, regions overlapping aortic-mitral continuity), however, unexpectedly lengthened during left ventricular systole. We conclude that the anterior mitral anulus may be a much more dynamic component of the mitral apparatus that previously thought. Such heterogeneous dynamic annular motion should be taken into account when various mitral valve reparative techniques are being designed.

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