Previous studies have attempted to define the biologic properties of the bone-implant interface using a single specimen harvested from the periprosthetic tissues. The purpose of this study was to examine the heterogeneity in cellular and cytokine profiles of multiple samples taken from the tissues surrounding revised hip prostheses. Clinical and radiographic data for nine patients undergoing surgical revision was gathered prospectively. Three tissue samples were taken systematically from the acetabular and/or femoral bed. Morphologic characteristics of the tissues were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using monoclonal antibodies to identify macrophages (EMB11 and CD68); activated macrophages (Leu M3); total T lymphocytes (Leu 4 and T11); T-helper lymphocytes (Leu 3A and CD4); cytotoxic/suppressor T lymphocytes (Leu 2A and CD3); and fibroblasts (5B5). In situ hybridization was used to identify the mRNA for specific proteins: interleukin (IL)1 alpha and -beta, IL-2, IL-6, transforming growth factor beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGF alpha), and interferon gamma. A quantitative assessment was performed for each section by calculating the percentage of positively staining cells using a light microscope and grid-counting technique. A random effect analysis of variance was calculated to determine both the variance between samples within each patient and the variance between different patients. Standard deviations contributed by sampling variance and patient variance were calculated and an F test was applied. Tissue samples taken from different regions of the bone-prosthesis interface showed marked heterogeneity in cellular and cytokine profiles. Critical F values indicating a statistically significant degree of variance between different tissue samples were exceeded for macrophages, cytotoxic/suppressor T lymphocytes, and T-helper lymphocytes. The cytokine profile was significantly different for IL-2, PDGF alpha, and TNF alpha. This tissue heterogeneity may be due to different mechanical and biologic environments along the bone-prosthesis interface. Thus, caution must be exercised in defining the biologic properties of the tissue surrounding revised prostheses according to a single biopsy.
View details for PubMedID 8806069