Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a cytosolic neutral lipase that hydrolyzes intracellular stores of triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters. HSL activity is regulated via phosphorylation-dephosphorylation, with cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase increasing activity following phosphorylation of a single serine and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylating another serine at a basal site. The current studies used site-directed mutagenesis to show that Ser-563 of rat HSL is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and that Ser-565 is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Mutation of Ser-563-->Ala eliminated HSL hydrolytic activity against cholesteryl ester, triacylglycerol, and diacylglycerol substrates to the same extent as mutation of Ser-423-->Ala, the presumed catalytic site. Mutation of Ser-565-->Ala modestly decreased HSL activity. In contrast, mutation of Ser-563-->Asp preserved HSL hydrolytic activity and even increased activity 20% above the control wild-type enzyme. Molecular modeling of the catalytic pocket of HSL suggested the involvement of Val-710. Mutation of Val-710-->Ala resulted in an 85% loss of HSL hydrolytic activity. The results of these studies illustrate the importance of the presence of a hydroxyl group or negative charge at residue 563, either for proper conformation of rat HSL or for proper stabilization of substrate to allow maintenance of hydrolytic activity, as well as the importance of the involvement of additional amino acids in the catalytic pocket of the enzyme.
View details for Web of Science ID 000074462100019
View details for PubMedID 9636039