The sensitivity and specificity of single-field nonmydriatic monochromatic digital fundus photography with remote image interpretation for diabetic retinopathy screening: A comparison with ophthalmoscopy and standardized mydriatic color photography AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY Lin, D. Y., Blumenkranz, M. S., Brothers, R. J., Grosvenor, D. M. 2002; 134 (2): 204-213


To evaluate single-field digital monochromatic nonmydriatic fundus photography as an adjunct in the screening of diabetic retinopathy.Prospective, comparative, observational case series.Patients with type I and type II diabetes mellitus (n = 197) were sequentially evaluated by three different techniques: single-field digital monochromatic nonmydriatic photography; dilated ophthalmoscopy by an ophthalmologist; and seven Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) standardized 35-mm color stereoscopic mydriatic images. The seven stereoscopic color photographs served as the reference standard and were compared with either ophthalmoscopy or a single digital photograph transmitted electronically to a reading site. Levels of agreement were determined by kappa analyses. The sensitivity and specificity of the three methods were compared based on a threshold for referral to further ophthalmologic evaluation (ETDRS level > or =35).There was highly significant agreement (kappa = 0.97, P =.0001) between the degree of retinopathy detected by a single nonmydriatic monochromatic digital photograph and that seen in seven standard 35-mm color stereoscopic mydriatic fields. The sensitivity of digital photography compared with color photography was 78%, with a specificity of 86%. Agreement was poor (kappa = 0.40, P =.0001) between mydriatic ophthalmoscopy and the seven-field standard 35-mm color photographs. Sensitivity of ophthalmoscopy compared with color photography was 34%, with a specificity of 100%.A single nonmydriatic monochromatic wide-field digital photograph of the disk and macula was more sensitive for diabetic retinopathy screening than mydriatic ophthalmoscopy, the currently accepted screening method. When adjudicated by standard seven-field color photographs, the higher sensitivity of digital photography primarily reflected the reduced sensitivity of ophthalmoscopy in detecting early retinopathy.

View details for Web of Science ID 000177169300008

View details for PubMedID 12140027