The desire to apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in the vicinity of embedded metallic hardware is increasing. The soft-tissue contrast available with MR techniques is advantageous in diagnosing complications near an increasing variety of MR-safe metallic hardware. Near such hardware, the spatial encoding mechanisms utilized in conventional MRI methods are often severely compromised. Mitigating these encoding difficulties has been the focus of numerous research investigations over the past two decades. Such approaches include view-angle tilting, short echo-time projection reconstruction acquisitions, single-point imaging, prepolarized MRI, and postprocessing image correction. Various technical advances have also enabled the recent development of two alternative approaches that have shown promising clinical potential. Here, the physical principals and proposed solutions to the problem of MRI near embedded metal are discussed.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22313
View details for Web of Science ID 000282764800002
View details for PubMedID 20882607