Racial and sex differences in refusal of coronary angiography AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Heidenreich, P. A., Shlipak, M. G., Geppert, J., McClellan, M. 2002; 113 (3): 200-207


To determine the effect of patient refusal on racial and sex differences in the use of coronary angiography and in outcomes among elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction.We included Medicare beneficiary patients admitted to hospitals performing coronary angiography from February 1994 through July 1995. In-hospital use and refusal of coronary angiography were determined, and adjusted for patient, hospital, and physician characteristics.Of 124,691 patients, 53,671 (43%) underwent angiography during hospitalization and 2881 (2.3%) refused. Patients refusing angiography were more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR] = 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23 to 1.53), black (OR = 1.26 vs. whites; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.56), and older (OR = 2.25 per 10-year increase; 95% CI: 2.05 to 2.43) than patients who underwent angiography. Angiography use was lower in blacks (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.83) than in whites, and lower in women (OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.86) than in men. Increased refusal explained 6% (95% CI: -3% to 15%) of the difference in angiography use between whites and blacks, and 16% (95% CI: 10% to 22%) of the difference between men and women. After adjustment for patient characteristics, refusal of angiography was not associated with worse survival at 1 year (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.20).Among Medicare beneficiaries, elderly female and black patients are more likely to refuse angiography than are male and white patients. However, patient refusal is uncommon and accounts for only a small fraction of the racial and sex differences in use of angiography after myocardial infarction.

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View details for PubMedID 12208378