Although surgery and radiation therapy have always been spatially targeted, chemotherapy as administered by oncologists has remained steadfastly committed to non-targeted systemic delivery. Decades of pharmaceutical research have yielded agents appropriate for intravenous use, but countless potentially efficacious agents have been discarded because of pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles unsuitable for systemic delivery. With the emerging technology of biological agents comes a new series of challenges. These agents tend to be larger, less long-lived, and antigenic when compared with the agents of the past. Meanwhile, interventional radiologists have shown that targeted methods of delivery can have substantial impact on the efficacy and toxicity of agents. Laboratory scientists have developed new bullets; we interventional radiologists have developed new guns. It is time we take advantage of potential synergies.
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