Tracheobronchitis is an uncommon manifestation of infection due to Aspergillus species, occurring in < 7% of cases of pulmonary aspergillosis. At least 58 cases of invasive aspergillus tracheobronchitis have been described since 1962. We describe four patients with AIDS, all of whom were severely immunocompromised, who had ulcerative tracheobronchitis due to Aspergillus species demonstrated histologically. Three patients had received corticosteroids or were neutropenic at presentation. At bronchoscopy, three patients had some degree of diffuse tracheobronchitis, multiple ulcerative or "plaque-like" inflammatory lesions, and occasionally nodules involving the mainstem and segmental bronchi. The remaining patient had a single deep ulceration of the proximal trachea. Aspergillus was isolated from biopsy specimens from all four patients. There were varied degrees of invasion of the mucosa, submucosa, and cartilage on histological examination in three patients, one of whom had evidence of disseminated aspergillosis. Two patients subsequently developed pulmonary parenchymal disease due to Aspergillus. A review of aspergillus tracheobronchitis, including a discussion of airway disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, is presented.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993LW23700005
View details for PubMedID 8218674