Immunomodulatory treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients with AIDS by use of recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor 35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Kemper, C. A., Bermudez, L. E., Deresinski, S. C. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 1998: 914–20


Eight AIDS patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia were randomized to receive azithromycin with or without granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for 6 weeks to examine the effect of GM-CSF administration on clearance of mycobacteremia and on monocyte function. Superoxide anion production was significantly increased ex vivo in monocytes from patients receiving GM-CSF but not in those from patients receiving azithromycin alone. Relative to monocytes obtained from untreated healthy controls, median differences in viable intracellular MAC at 2, 4, and 6 weeks were -0.76, -0.94, and -0.47 log10 cfu/mL of lysate for cells from patients receiving GM-CSF versus -0.15, -0.11, and -0.19 log10 cfu/mL for cells from patients receiving azithromycin alone. Although no effect on mycobacteremia was detected, the administration of GM-CSF to AIDS patients with MAC bacteremia resulted in activation of their blood monocytes, as evidenced by increased superoxide anion production and enhanced mycobactericidal activity. GM-CSF deserves further investigation in the treatment of mycobacterial infections.

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