A prospective cohort study was conducted among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected in-patients with tuberculosis (TB) or other opportunistic infections (OIs) in South Africa to estimate subsequent antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake and survival.Logistic regression modeling explored associations between baseline characteristics and starting ART, and ART exposure-adjusted incidence of death was estimated over 6 months of follow-up.Among 49 participants enrolled, median CD4 cell count at hospital discharge was 42 cells/microl and the most common presenting OIs were TB (76%), Pneumocystis pneumonia (8%), chronic diarrhea (8%), cryptococcal meningitis (6%), and Toxoplasma gondii (4%). By 6 months, only 20 (45%) patients had initiated ART, and four (8%) were lost to follow-up. ART uptake was independently associated with previous use of traditional medicine (OR 7.2, 95%CI 1.4-55.1) and with less advanced HIV infection (baseline CD4 count per 50 cells/microl increase OR 1.4, 95%CI 0.9-2.2). A total of 14 (31%) patients died before initiating ART; the monthly incidence of death did not decrease over the 6-month interval.The high mortality observed within the 6 months following hospitalization with TB or other acute OIs indicate that mechanisms are needed to expedite ART for patients after an acquired immune-deficiency syndrome defining illness.
View details for Web of Science ID 000279489000019
View details for PubMedID 20550776