Cytokines that regulate monocyte migration were found in membrane tissue surrounding loosened prosthetic implants. Monocyte migration inhibition factor (MIF) is able to inhibit macrophage migration. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) are potent macrophage chemoattractants. These cytokines may be expressed as part of the foreign body response to prosthetic particulate debris. Chemotaxis analysis and macrophage activation experiments were performed to determine the effects of MIF, MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha on macrophage migration and activation in vitro. We demonstrated that MIF had its maximal migration inhibitory effect for unchallenged and particle challenged macrophages at 1 ng/mL. MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha stimulated macrophage chemotaxis maximally at 1 to 10 ng/mL. Dose-response studies with MIF, MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha demonstrated that these cytokines did not modulate activation of unchallenged or particle challenged macrophages as evaluated by IL-6 and TNF-alpha release. However, these cytokines do not appear to affect macrophage release of proinflammatory mediators in vitro.
View details for PubMedID 10398027