We evaluated the potential effects of granulocyte colony-simulating factor (G- CSF) on the incidence of rejection and allograft vasculopathy in heart transplant recipients.Of 247 patients undergoing heart transplantation from 2000 to 2007, 52 (21%) developed leukopenia (white blood cell [WBC] <2.5 × 10(9)cells/L) in the absence of active infection, rejection, or malignancy. In 24 (46%) patients a clinical decision was made to treat the leukopenia with G-CSF (G-CSF group), and 28 (54%) Patients received no G-CSF (non-GCSF group). Patients followed up for 1 year after the period of leukopenia were assessed for allograft vasculopathy and acute rejection incidence.At baseline, the G-CSF group and the non-GCSF group did not differ in age, gender, race, heart failure etiology, creatinine, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or immunosupressive regimen. During 1-year follow-up there were no deaths in the G-CSF group, and 1 death in the non-GCSF group (P = .34). The incidence of rejection or progressive allograft vasculopathy was lower in the G-CSF group when compared with the non-GCSF group (2 [8%] vs 15 [53%]; P < .01). Multivariate analysis identified both prior rejection episodes and G-CSF therapy as factors associated with the combined end-point of rejection or progressive allograft vasculopathy (odds ratio [OR] = 7.89 [1.67-37.2] and OR = 0.09 [0.02-0.52], respectively).G-CSF therapy appears to be associated with a decreased incidence of acute rejection episodes or allograft vasculopathy in heart transplant recipients, suggesting a potential immunomodulatory effect of G-CSF.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.01.106
View details for PubMedID 23953556