VEGF and VEGF receptor, Flt-1, expression was observed in periprosthetic tissues surrounding loosened total joint implants. Exposure of monocyte/macrophages to titanium particles resulted in increased VEGF expression, p44/42 MAPK activation, and VEGF-dependent macrophage chemotaxis. Increased levels of angiogenic factors, such as VEGF, may be critically important in wear debris-induced implant loosening after total joint arthroplasty.Periprosthetic osteolysis after total hip arthroplasty occurs in association with formation of a vascularized granulomatous tissue in response to particulate debris.This study examined expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the VEGF receptor in 10 periprosthetic tissues from loosened prostheses and quantified effects of titanium particles on VEGF release, intracellular signaling, and VEGF-dependent chemotaxis in primary cultures of human monocyte/macrophages.Double immunofluorescent staining showed that VEGF and Flt-1 co-localized with cells positive for the macrophage marker, CD11b, in the periprosthetic tissues. Monocyte/macrophages challenged with titanium particles showed a dose- and time-dependent release of VEGF ranging from 2.8- to 3.1-fold and exhibited increased expression of VEGF121 and VEGF165 mRNAs, reaching levels up to 5.0- and 8.6-fold, respectively, by 48 h (p < 0.01). Exposure of monocyte/macrophages to titanium particles upregulated phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) within 30 minutes. Particle-induced activation of p44/42 MAPK and release of VEGF were dose-dependently suppressed by pretreatment of cells with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of p44/42 MAPK. Monocyte/macrophages challenged with titanium particles also showed a time-dependent activation of AP-1, a transcription factor associated with VEGF expression (p < 0.01). Supernatants from particle-challenged monocyte/macrophages increased macrophage chemotactic activity by 30%, which was significantly inhibited by anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody (p < 0.01).This study suggests that induction of VEGF release from monocyte/macrophages in response to orthopaedic biomaterial wear debris may contribute to periprosthetic osteolysis and implant loosening.
View details for PubMedID 12968666