Familiarity with basic sequence properties and their trade-offs is necessary for radiologists performing abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Acquiring diagnostic-quality MR images in the pediatric abdomen is challenging due to motion, inability to breath hold, varying patient size, and artifacts. Motion-compensation techniques (eg, respiratory gating, signal averaging, suppression of signal from moving tissue, swapping phase- and frequency-encoding directions, use of faster sequences with breath holding, parallel imaging, and radial k-space filling) can improve image quality. Each of these techniques is more suitable for use with certain sequences and acquisition planes and in specific situations and age groups. Different T1- and T2-weighted sequences work better in different age groups and with differing acquisition planes and have specific advantages and disadvantages. Dynamic imaging should be performed differently in younger children than in older children. In younger children, the sequence and the timing of dynamic phases need to be adjusted. Different sequences work better in smaller children and in older children because of differing breath-holding ability, breathing patterns, field of view, and use of sedation. Hence, specific protocols should be maintained for younger children and older children. Combining longer-higher-resolution sequences and faster-lower-resolution sequences helps acquire diagnostic-quality images in a reasonable time.
View details for DOI 10.1148/rg.333125027
View details for Web of Science ID 000319111700009
View details for PubMedID 23674770