Total joint replacement is a highly successful surgical procedure for treatment of patients with disabling arthritis and joint dysfunction. However, over time, with high levels of activity and usage of the joint, implant wear particles are generated from the articulating surfaces. These wear particles can lead to activation of an inflammatory reaction, and subsequent bone resorption around the implant (periprosthetic osteolysis). Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage orchestrate this chronic inflammatory response, which is dominated by a pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophage phenotype rather than an anti-inflammatory pro-tissue healing (M2) macrophage phenotype. While it has been shown that interleukin-4 (IL-4) selectively polarizes macrophages towards an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype which promotes bone healing, rather than inflammation, little is known about the time course in which this occurs or conditions in which repolarization through IL-4 is most effective. The goal of this work was to study the time course of murine macrophage polarization and cytokine release in response to challenge with combinations of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) particles, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IL-4 in vitro. Treatment of particle-challenged monocyte/macrophages with IL-4 led to an initial suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production and subsequent polarization into an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. This result was optimized when IL-4 was delivered before PMMA particle challenge, to an M1 phenotype rather than to uncommitted (M0) macrophages. The effects of this polarization were sustained over a 5-day time course. Polarization of M1 macrophages into an M2 phenotype may be a strategy to mitigate wear particle associated periprosthetic osteolysis.
View details for DOI 10.1038/cmi.2013.39
View details for Web of Science ID 000326688400005
View details for PubMedID 24013843
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3818297