To quantify the impact of radiation dose escalation on the timing of biochemical failure (BF) and distant metastasis (DM) for prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone.The data from 667 men with clinically localized intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal RT alone were retrospectively analyzed. The interval hazard rates of DM and BF, using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) and Phoenix (nadir + 2) definitions, were determined. The median follow-up was 77 months.Multivariate analysis showed that increasing radiation dose was independently associated with decreased ASTRO BF (p < 0.0001), nadir + 2 BF (p = 0.001), and DM (p = 0.006). The preponderance (85%) of ASTRO BF occurred at < or =4 years after RT, and nadir + 2 BF was more evenly spread throughout Years 1-10, with 55% of BF in < or =4 years. Radiation dose escalation caused a shift in the BF from earlier to later years. The interval hazard function for DM appeared to be biphasic (early and late peaks) overall and for the <74-Gy group. In patients receiving > or =74 Gy, a reduction occurred in the risk of DM in the early and late waves, although the late wave appeared reduced to a greater degree.The ASTRO definition of BF systematically underestimated late BF because of backdating. Radiation dose escalation diminished and delayed BF; the delay suggested that local persistence may still be present in some patients. For DM, a greater radiation dose reduced the early and late waves, suggesting that persistence of local disease contributed to both.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.10.023
View details for Web of Science ID 000245021100016
View details for PubMedID 17197131