Cardiac surgery, traditionally conducted via median sternotomy, has been recently forwarded by progressively advanced technology facilitating sternal-sparing minimally invasive, access to the heart. Robotic systems, comprised of miniaturized surgical instruments mounted on long thin shafts with multiple degrees of range of motion coupled with a dual camera endoscope providing true three-dimentional high-magnification visualization have greatly propelled this field.The robotic system and the literature base pertaining to robotic cardiac surgery is reviewed in depth.Robotic cardiac surgical procedures have been performed to repair and replace the mitral valve, bypass coronary arteries, close atrial septal defects, implant left ventricular pacing leads, and resect intracardiac tumors.As minimally invasive and robotic surgical technology advances, so proceeds the spectrum of potential applications for robotic cardiac surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1002/rcs.98
View details for Web of Science ID 000241078300004
View details for PubMedID 17520636