Minimally invasive, robotic, and off-pump mitral valve surgery. Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Woo, Y. J., Rodriguez, E., Atluri, P., Chitwood, W. R. 2006; 18 (2): 139-147


A significant transformation is occurring in the management of mitral valve disease. Earlier surgery is now recommended. Mitral valve repair is the standard of care, and newer methods of reconstructing the mitral valve are developing. Surgery with videoscopic assistance can be effectively performed without sternotomy. Robotics systems are gaining wider adoption. Implantable devices to repair or replace the mitral valve off-pump and percutaneously are emerging.

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