We analyzed mechanobiological influences on successful distraction osteogenesis (DO). Mandibular distraction surgeries were performed on 15 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals underwent gradual distraction (GD), progressive lengthening by small increments (5-day latency followed by 0.25 mm distractions twice daily for 8 days followed by 28-day maturation period). Distracted hemimandibles were harvested on postoperative days (POD) 5, 7, 10, 13, and 41. Load-displacement curves were then recorded for ex vivo distractions of 0.25 mm and stresses determined. Histologically, new bone formation appeared in GD specimens on distraction day 2 (POD 7), filling 50-60% of the gap by distraction day 8 (POD 13), with nearly complete bony bridging at end maturation (POD 41). Average tensile strains imposed by each incremental distraction ranged from approximately 10% to 12.5% during distraction days 2-8 and were associated with bone apposition rates of about 260 microm/day. Because this GD protocol was previously determined to be optimal for DO, we conclude that strains within this range provide an excellent environment for de novo bone apposition. Distraction caused tissue damage in distraction day 2, 5, and 8 specimens as evidenced by distinct drops in the load/displacement curves. Taken together, our interpretation of these data is that daily distractions cause daily tissue damage which triggers new mesenchymal tissue formation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bone.2003.10.012
View details for Web of Science ID 000220014000011
View details for PubMedID 14962812