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Recent studies demonstrate an increased teratogenic risk for valproate and a probable increased risk for phenobarbital. Carbamazepine and lamotrigine appear relatively safe; however, results are inconclusive concerning a specific risk for cleft lip/palate for both drugs as well as a dose-dependent effect for malformations associated with lamotrigine. Data regarding teratogenic risks for other antiepileptic drugs are inadequate. Additional studies are needed to delineate further the risks for all antiepileptic drugs and determine the underlying mechanisms.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1535-7511.2008.00273.x
View details for PubMedID 19127305