Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease involving endothelial cell damage and fibroblast overproduction of extracellular matrix. Several autoantibodies present in the sera of patients with scleroderma, including anti-endothelial cell, antifibroblast, anti-matrix metalloproteinase, and antifibrillin-1 antibodies, may directly contribute to disease pathogenesis. Scleroderma also is characterized by the presence of antinuclear and antinucleolar antibodies, which correlate with particular phenotypes. These include antitopoisomerase-I, anticentromere, antihistone, anti-polymyositis/scleroderma, anti-Th/To, anti-U3-small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particle, anti-U1-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle, anti-RNA polymerase, and anti-B23 antibodies. Other antibodies classically associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as antiphospholipid, antineutrophil cytoplasmic, and antimitochondrial antibodies, also have been described in patients with scleroderma. This review will summarize the various autoantibodies associated with scleroderma, their putative pathogenic roles, and their phenotypic correlations.
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