Poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure treatment in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) adversely affects the effectiveness of this therapy. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of hypoglossal nerve stimulation as an alternative therapy in the treatment of OSA.Scopus, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched (updated through September 5, 2014).Studies were included that evaluated the efficacy of hypoglossal nerve stimulation to treat OSA in adults with outcomes for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and effect on daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]). Tests for heterogeneity and subgroup analysis were performed.Six prospective studies with 200 patients were included in this review. At 12 months, the pooled fixed effects analysis demonstrated statistically significant reductions in AHI, ODI, and ESS mean difference of -17.51 (95% CI: -20.69 to -14.34); -13.73 (95% CI: -16.87 to -10.58), and -4.42 (95% CI: -5.39 to -3.44), respectively. Similar significant reductions were observed at 3 and 6 months. Overall, the AHI was reduced between 50% and 57%, and the ODI was reduced between 48% and 52%. Despite using different hypoglossal nerve stimulators in each subgroup analysis, no significant heterogeneity was found in any of the comparisons, suggesting equivalent efficacy regardless of the system in use.This review reveals that hypoglossal nerve stimulation therapy may be considered in selected patients with OSA who fail medical treatment. Further studies comparing hypoglossal nerve stimulation with conventional therapies are needed to definitively evaluate outcomes.NA Laryngoscope, 2014.
View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.25032
View details for Web of Science ID 000353996900049
View details for PubMedID 25389029