Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is a highly effective treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Although direct comparisons from randomized trials are not available, rates of both primary tumor control and distant metastasis are similar between SABR and surgery. Overall survival is lower after SABR compared with surgery, largely reflecting that a primary selection criterion for SABR has been medical inoperability because of decreased cardiopulmonary function and other comorbidities that lead to decreased survival independent of non-small cell lung cancer. Survival outcomes between SABR and surgery are much more similar in propensity-matched cohorts. Newer potential indications for SABR include treatment of operable patients; of oligometastatic lung cancer, in which SABR has emerged as an alternative to metastasectomy; and of oligoprogressive lung cancer, an attractive concept especially as improved personalized systemic therapies emerge, and prospective trials are currently being conducted in these settings. Although toxicity in modern series is low, SABR is clearly capable of producing fatal complications, and understanding the risk factors and approaches for mitigating them has been emerging in recent years. Thus, appropriate patient selection is a vital, evolving, and controversial topic.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.semradonc.2014.11.005
View details for Web of Science ID 000351254100003