Wear debris from total joint replacement prostheses is implicated in periprosthetic osteolysis and implant loosening. The pathophysiology of this biological process remains unclear. Animal models of particle-induced osteolysis have proven useful in the study of specific tissue responses to wear debris. However, existing in vivo murine models of particle-mediated inflammation do not permit analysis of cortical bone degradation. This study describes a murine model of particle disease using an intramedullary rod in the mouse femur to parallel the clinical situation. The model consists of placing a 10-mm-long Kirschner wire retrograde in both femurs of C57b1/6 male mice via a medial parapatellar arthrotomy. Phagocytosable titanium particles were also implanted unilaterally to replicate generation of wear debris. Mice were sacrificed at 2, 10, and 26 weeks and whole femurs were cultured for 72 h. Levels of interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage colony stimulating factor were assayed by ELISA. Transverse histological sections, at the level of the implant, were taken and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Results demonstrated increased expression of proinflammatory mediators at 2 weeks in femora with rod and particles compared to femora with rods alone. Destruction of the endosteum was evident at 2, 10, and 26 weeks in the femora with titanium. This novel murine model of particle-induced intramedullary inflammation may facilitate cost-effective genetic studies and offers investigators a simple, clinically relevant intramedullary model to readily examine the pathogenesis of particle-mediated periprosthetic osteolysis.
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