Joint injuries are very common in the athletic population, especially professional soccer players, with an incidence of 10 to 35.5 injuries per 1000 hours. Most soccer-related joint injuries occur in the lower extremities, with 16% to 46% occurring in the knee and 17% to 40% occurring in the ankle. Because of the limited healing capacity of cartilage and other intra-articular soft tissue structures, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscus, joint injuries often lead to the development of early disabling osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis in soccer players is 5 to 12 times more frequent than in the general population and diagnosed 4 to 5 years earlier. It remains a major cause of disability from this sport. This review focuses on the epidemiology of soccer-related joint injuries and subsequent development of osteoarthritis in the hip, knee, and ankle joints. As well, two different pathways for pathogenesis are described: (1) primary osteoarthritis via direct trauma to the articular cartilage and (2) secondary osteoarthritis that occurs indirectly through injury to the soft tissue structures that subsequently result in articular cartilage degeneration and loss.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1947603511426882
View details for Web of Science ID 000209218100011
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4297167