Patients with relapsed or refractory urothelial carcinoma (UC) face a poor prognosis and a dearth of available treatment options that improve their survival. End-organ function and performance status play a vital role in the choice of second-line therapies. Evidence supporting the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy, as single agents or in combination, arises from small phase 2 studies with modest responses. With the evolution of genomic testing in UC, several pathways amenable to available targeted therapies have emerged. Encouraging patient participation in clinical trials is critical to improve patient outcomes and to advance the current modest treatment armamentarium.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hoc.2014.10.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000353430000015
View details for PubMedID 25836939