The number of validated biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure is limited, and none exist for tobacco-related cancer. Additional biomarkers for smoke, effects on cellular systems in vivo are needed to improve early detection of lung cancer, and to assist the Food and Drug Administration in regulating exposures to tobacco products. We assessed the effects of smoking on the gene expression using human cell cultures and blood from a cross-sectional study. We profiled global transcriptional changes in cultured smokers' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in vitro (n?=?7) and from well-characterized smokers' blood (n?=?36). ANOVA with adjustment for covariates and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis in this study. CSC in vitro altered the expression of 1?178 genes (177 genes with >?1.5-fold-change) at P? ?1.5-fold-change) at P?
View details for DOI 10.1002/mc.22385
View details for PubMedID 26294040