Liver transplantation is now the preferred treatment for many diseases leading to end-stage liver disease. Transplantation for cancer has been disappointing and there is a significant recurrence rate after transplantation in hepatitis B-virus carriers. Additional strategies will have to be developed if we are to improve the results of transplantation for these patients. The role of immunological factors in liver transplantation continues to reveal significant differences from their role in renal transplantation and will continue to be an interesting area of study for years to come.
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